Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia
https://www.actalb.org/article/doi/10.1590/S2179-975X6022
Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia
Original Article

Mapping variability in CO2 saturation in Amazonian rivers at a large spatial scale indicates undersaturated areas

Mapeamento da variabilidade na saturação de CO2 em rios amazônicos em larga escala indica áreas subsaturadas

Sarian Kosten; Raquel Mendonça; Donato Seiji Abe; Fabio Roland; Vera Huszar

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Abstract

Abstract: Aim: Amazonian rivers outgas high amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, the outgassing estimate remains uncertain due to the limited spatial distribution of data on water-atmosphere CO2 fluxes. So far, the vast extent of the basin and the difficult access to some regions have hampered complete mapping. We hypothesize that 1) CO2 supersaturation prevails in most Amazonian rivers and 2) undersaturation occurs only at a few locations, particularly during the low-water period.

Methods: To obtain insight on the spatial distribution of partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), an essential determinant of CO2 fluxes, we analysed water sampled by a specially equipped hydroplane at an unprecedented sizeable spatial scale in the Amazon basin at 419 locations.

Results: Confirming our hypothesis, most rivers were supersaturated with CO2 concerning the atmosphere. In contrast to our expectations, however, we also found below equilibrium CO2 concentrations in several tributaries, particularly during low-water periods, when light availability in the water column is highest likely coinciding with the highest aquatic primary production rates. Correlation analyses further indicated that pCO2 values are positively related to the organic carbon density in the soils, net primary production, and the proportion of flood-able land in the sub-basins.

Conclusions: We conclude that supersaturation with CO2 occurs in most rivers, but several tributaries are undersaturated. Our findings highlight the different roles that Amazonian rivers can play in the regional carbon cycle. We argue that up-scaling should explicitly incorporate areas with riverine CO2 uptake, particularly at the sub-basin scale.

Keywords

pCO2, spatial variability, autotrophy, hydroplane sampling

Resumo

Resumo:: Objetivo: Rios amazônicos liberam quantidades expressivas de dióxido de carbono (CO2). Entretanto, essas estimativas permanecem incertas devido à limitada distribuição espacial de dados sobre fluxos água-atmosfera. A vasta extensão da bacia hidrográfica e a dificuldade de acesso a algumas regiões têm impedido um mapeamento completo até o momento. As hipóteses deste estudo são que: 1) a supersaturação de CO2 prevalece na maioria dos rios amazônicos; e 2) a subsaturação ocorre somente em poucos locais, particularmente durante períodos de águas baixas.

Métodos: Para melhor compreender a distribuição da pressão parcial de CO2 (pCO2), um determinante essencial de fluxos de CO2, nós analisamos amostras de água coletadas por um hidroavião especialmente equipado em uma escala espacial sem precedente em 419 locais na bacia Amazônica.

Resultados: Confirmando nossa primeira hipótese, a maioria dos rios esteve supersaturada em relação ao CO2 da atmosfera. No entanto, ao contrário de nossas expectativas, nós também encontramos concentrações de CO2 abaixo do equilíbrio em vários tributários, particularmente durante períodos de águas baixas, quando a disponibilidade de luz na coluna de água é maior provavelmente coincidindo com maiores taxas de produção primária. Análises de correlação indicaram que valores de pCO2 estão positivamente relacionados com a densidade de carbono nos solos, com a produção primária líquida e com a proporção de área alagável nas sub-bacias.

Conclusões: Nós concluímos que a supersaturação em CO2 ocorre na maioria dos rios, mas vários tributários são subsaturados. Nossos achados trazem luz aos diferentes papéis que os rios amazônicos podem desempenhar no ciclo do carbono regional. Também argumentamos que extrapolações espaciais deveriam explicitamente incorporar áreas com absorção de CO2 fluvial, particularmente na escala de sub-bacias.
 

Palavras-chave

pCO2, variabilidade espacial, autotrofia, amostragem por hidroavião

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Submitted date:
09/13/2023

Accepted date:
02/14/2023

Publication date:
03/22/2023

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